Note 1 Accounting principles

Compliance with standards and legislation

The consolidated accounts have been draw up in accordance with those International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) which have been adopted by EU. In addition, the Swedish Financial Reporting Board recommendation RFR 1 Supplementary accounting rules for groups has also been applied.

The parent company applies the same accounting principles as the Group except in the cases stated in the section below on Parent company accounting principles.

The Annual Report and the consolidated accounts have been approved of by the Board and CEO for publication on 26 March 2019. The consolidated income statement and balance sheet and parent company income statement and balance sheet will be presented for adoption by the AGM on 9 May 2019.

Valuation basis

Assets and liabilities are recognized at historical acquisition values except for certain financial assets and liabilities which are assessed at fair value. Financial assets and liabilities valued at fair value consist of derivatives, contingent considerations and shares and holdings that are not subsidiaries, joint arrangements or associated companies.

Functional currency and reporting currency

The parent company’s functional currency is the Swedish krona, which is also the currency in which the accounts of the parent company and the Group are reported. Unless otherwise indicated all amounts are rounded off to the nearest million.

Assessments and estimates in the financial reports

Preparing the financial reports requires on the one hand making assessments concerning the application of accounting principles and on the other hand estimating the value of assets, liabilities, revenues and costs. Estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors considered relevant. Estimates and assumptions are regularly reviewed and compared to the actual outcome. Important assessments are described in more detail in note 3.

Amended accounting principles

IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers

IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers replaced as of 2018 former standards related to revenue recognition such as IAS 18 Revenue, IAS 11 Construction contracts and IFRIC 15 Agreements for the construction of real estate. Implementation of the new standard has entailed a new way of determining how and when income is recognized. However, IFRS 15 has not had any material effects on Peab. The effects of IFRS 15 are described in note 2.

IFRS 9 Financial instruments

IFRS 9 Financial instruments, replaced IAS 39 Financial instruments: Recognition and measurement, as of 1 January 2018. Compared to IAS 39 IFRS 9 entails changes in the classification and valuation of financial assets and financial liabilities, write-downs of financial assets and hedge accounting. The effects of IFRS 9, described in note 2, have been immaterial.

Other amended IFRSs applied as of 2018 have had little effect on consolidated financial reports.

New IFRSs and interpretations that have not yet been applied

IFRS 16 Leases

IFRS 16 Leases, replaces IAS 17 Leases, as of 1 January 2019. The changes stemming from IFRS 16 are described in note 45.


Other new or amended IFRSs together with interpretations that have been adopted by IASB are not expected to have any material effect on Group accounting.

Operating segments

An operating segment is a section of the Group engaged in similar business activities that generates revenues and expenses and the result of which is regularly reviewed by executive management.


Fixed assets consist of amounts which are expected to be recovered or paid more than twelve months after the balance sheet date. Long-term liabilities consist of amounts which are due for payment more than twelve months after the balance sheet date as well as other amounts the company has an unconditional right to defer payment on until a point in time more than twelve months after the balance sheet date. Other assets and liabilities are recognized as current assets and current liabilities. Inventories in the form of project and development properties with a normal operating cycle that is longer than twelve months are also recognized as current assets.

Consolidation principles


Subsidiaries are entities over which Peab AB exercises a direct or indirect controlling interest. Controlling interest exists if the parent company has direct or indirect influence over an investment object, is exposed to or has the right to variable yields from its interest in an investment object and can use its influence over an investment object to affect the size of its yield.

Subsidiary financial reports are recognized in the consolidated accounts from the day controlling interest occurs until it no longer exists.

Joint ventures

For accounting purposes, joint ventures are entities where the Group through cooperation agreements with one or more parties exercises a joint controlling interest, where the Group has the indirect right to net assets.

Associated companies and joint ventures are consolidated in accordance with the equity method. The equity method means that the recognized value of shares corresponds to the Group’s share of the company’s equity as well as Group goodwill and any other Group deficit and surplus values. The Group’s share of the profit/loss in holdings after tax, adjusted for depreciation, write-downs or dispersal of acquired deficit and surplus values are recognized in consolidated profit/loss. Received dividends reduce the recognized value of the investment.

The equity method is applied until the time the joint controlling interest ceases.

Joint operations

Joint operations, usually run as a company, are joint arrangements where Peab and one or more partners have the right to all the financial advantages related to the assets of the operations. How the liabilities of the operations are settled depends on the partners’ purchases of output from them or capital infusions to them. Joint operations are recognized according to the proportional method which means each party in a joint operation recognizes their respective share in assets, liabilities, income and expenses.

Associated companies

Associated companies are those companies in which the Group has a significant but not controlling interest over operating and financial governance usually through shareholdings of between 20 and 50 percent. Associated companies are recognized according to the equity method.

Business combinations

Business combinations are recognized using the purchase accounting method. The method is applied from the point in time the Group has a controlling interest over the acquisition. The purchase accounting method means acquisitions are regarded as transactions through which the Group indirectly acquires the assets of the subsidiary and takes over its liabilities. The consolidated acquisition value is calculated in an acquisition analysis in conjunction with the acquisition. The analysis establishes the acquisition value of the participations or the business and the fair value on acquisition date of the acquired identifiable assets and the liabilities taken over. If ownership and controlling interest is successive a remeasuring of previous holdings to fair value at the point in time the company gets controlling interest over the acquisition is performed and this change in value is recognized in profit/loss.

Goodwill is calculated as the sum of payment for the participations or the business in step acquisitions together with the fair value of previously acquired shares less the fair value of the subsidiary’s identifiable assets and overtaken liabilities. When the difference is negative this is recognized directly in profit/loss for the year. Transaction costs for business combinations are charged upon acquisition.

Contingent considerations are measured at fair value at the time of acquisition and subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in profit/loss as they occur.

Net assets attributable to holdings of non-controlling interest (the minority) are recognized either as the fair value of all net assets excluding goodwill or the fair value of all assets including goodwill. The choice of principle is made for each acquisition individually.

Issued sales options referring to participations held by holdings of non-controlling interest are recognized according to the “Anticipated Acquisition Method”. According to the method no holdings of non-controlling interest are recognized in the Group’s total equity. Instead a financial liability is recognized that corresponds to the current estimated exercise price. The consequent changes in the value of the liability are recognized in profit/loss for the year, attributable to parent company owners.

When controlling interest has been achieved the change in ownership is recognized as a transfer in equity between the parent company and the non-controlling interest, without remeasuring the subsidiary’s net assets.

If partial disposal of a subsidiary results in the loss of controlling interest any residual holding is revalued to fair value and the amount of the change is recognized in profit/loss.

Asset acquisition

When acquisitions of subsidiaries involve the acquisition of net assets which do not comprise operations, the acquisition cost of each identifiable asset and liability is divided up based on its fair value at the time of acquisition. Transaction costs are added to the purchase price of the acquired net assets when assets are acquired and changes in contingent consideration after acquisition are added to the purchase price of the acquired assets. If the acquisition of a subsidiary is successive and is an asset acquisition no remeasuring of previous acquisitions is performed when controlling interest occurs. If the holding diminishes through partial divestiture of shares in subsidiaries and is an asset divestiture, unlike a transfer of operations, the remaining holdings are not remeasured if the remaining holdings constitute a joint venture or associated company. Holdings of non-controlling interest in subsidiaries recognized as asset acquisitions are recognized according to the same principles as for business combinations but without the inclusion of goodwill.

Transactions eliminated upon consolidation

Internal Group receivables and liabilities, revenues or costs or unrealized gains or losses stemming from internal Group transactions are eliminated completely when preparing the consolidated accounts.

Unrealized gains arising from transactions with joint ventures, joint operations and associated companies are eliminated to the extent these refer to the Group’s ownership in the company. Unrealized losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealized gains but only to the extent there is no impairment requirement. When subsidiaries considered to be operational become joint ventures or associated companies the residue holding is remeasured to fair value according to the principles above about recognition when controlling interest ceases.

Foreign currency

Transactions in foreign currency

Transactions in foreign currency are converted to the functional currency at the exchange rate on the transaction date. The functional currency is the currency of the primary financial bases the company operates in. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency are converted to the functional currency at the exchange rate applying on the balance sheet day. Exchange rate differences arising during translation are recognized in profit/loss for the year. Non-monetary assets and liabilities which are recognized at their historical acquisition value are converted to the exchange rate at the time of the transaction. Non-monetary assets recognized at fair value are recalculated to the functional currency at the exchange rate at the time of valuation at fair value.

Foreign company financial reports

Assets and liabilities in foreign entities including goodwill and other Group deficit and surplus values are converted from the foreign company’s functional currency to the Group’s reporting currency, Swedish krona, at the exchange rate on balance sheet day. Revenue and costs in a foreign entity are converted to Swedish krona at an average rate that approximates the rates on the respective transaction dates. Translation differences arising when converting the currency of foreign companies are recognized in other comprehensive income and are accumulated in a separate component in equity as a translation reserve.

Net investment in a foreign company

Translation differences arising from the translation of a foreign net investment are recognized via other comprehensive income in the translation reserve in equity. Translation differences also comprise exchange rate differences from loans which form a part of the parent company’s investment in foreign subsidiaries (so-called extended investment). When a foreign subsidiary is divested, the accumulated translation differences attributable to the company are reclassified from equity to profit/loss for the year.


The Group recognizes revenue when the Group meets a performance obligation, which is when a promised good or service is delivered to the customer and the customer takes control over the good or service. Control of a performance obligation can be transferred over time or at a certain point in time. The revenue consists of the amount the company expects to receive as compensation for the transferred goods or services. The Peab Group’s revenue primarily consists of the following revenue flows: Construction contracts, Sales of goods, Sales of property projects, Transportation services, Rent revenue and Other revenue.

Revenue recognition requires assessing the facts and relationships in each contract at the same time the legal environment must be taken into account. These assessments primarily concern identification of one or more performance obligations, anticipated variable compensation and whether or not the revenue is recognized over time or at one point in time.

The following principles are applied on each revenue flow.

Construction contracts

Revenue from construction contracts comes from business areas Construction, Civil Engineering, parts of business area Industry and parts of business area Project Development, primarily Housing Development, i.e. tenant-owned housing projects in Sweden and single homes (Own Home).

A contract exists when enforceable rights and obligations occur for the Group as well as the customer. These rights and obligations normally occur when both parties sign the contract. In the case of a framework agreement without guaranteed volumes a contract exists with a customer first when the customer places an order/call-off based on the framework agreement’s terms since it is at that point in time enforceable rights and obligations occur for the Group and the customer. In certain situations two or more contracts are combined into one contract if they are negotiated as a package with a single commercial purpose, if the price in one contract is dependent on the price or performance in the other contract or if the goods and services promised in the contracts are a single performance obligation.

In certain transactions, like Swedish tenant-owned housing projects, two contracts are signed between Peab and the customer at the same time, a sale of land contract and a construction contract. Both these contracts are contingent on each other and treated in accounting as a single contract. The combined contract comprises a single performance obligation where land and construction are input in the process of delivering a completed new building.

Recognition of revenue due to contract changes related to changes or additional work, compensation for shortcomings in procurement conditions and such does not begin until enforceable rights and obligations occur between the Group and the customer. This normally occurs when both parties have agreed on a change in the contract and there is a legal right to payment. Contract changes are normally recognized as if they were a part of the existing contract.

A determination is made for every contract or combined contract on whether one or more performance obligations exist. This can vary from contract to contract. Normally a construction contract constitutes one performance obligation.

The transaction price in each contract with the customer consists normally of fixed amounts, variable amounts or a combination thereof. To the extent that the transaction price includes variable compensation amounts the transaction price consists of an estimated anticipated value. Variable compensation is only recognized when it is very likely that a material reversal of accumulated income will not occur when uncertainty ceases and the compensation sum becomes definite.

Revenue from construction contracts is recognized over time since Peab performs the work on the customer’s land or the asset or service does not create any alternative use for Peab and where Peab has the right to compensation including a margin for the performance reached at specific points in time. This means that control is transferred over time which is why the income is recognized over time. In addition to construction contracts some other contracts for services such as operation contracts exist. Control is also transferred over time in these contracts since the customer consumes the service at the same it is received. This revenue is recognized through the input method based on the worked-up rate in each project. This means that expenses are recognized as costs when they occur and the worked-up rate is determined on the basis of project costs in relationship to the project’s calculated total expenses, which mirrors how control is transferred to the buyer and how the Group’s lowest right to compensation including a margin from customers is worked-up. This is the basis of revenue recognition.

Recognition over time entails some uncertainty since unforeseen events can occur leaving the final level of profit/loss higher or lower than expected. The degree of uncertainty is higher at the start of a project, particularly in projects spanning over a long period of time. Reviews of a project’s total estimated revenue and expenses are performed regularly during the entire production period.

Feared losses are charged to income as soon as they become known, and these amounts charge profit/loss.

Construction contracts are recognized on the balance sheet project by project either as Worked-up not invoiced revenue under current assets or as Invoiced revenue not worked-up under current liabilities. Projects with higher worked-up revenue than invoiced are recognized as assets while projects which have been invoiced in excess of the worked-up revenue are recognized as liabilities. The not worked-up part of a feared loss is recognized as a provision.

Obligations issued by Peab to acquire homes from tenant-owned housing associations that remain unsold for a given period of time after final inspection are recognized according to the regulations regarding loss-making contracts in IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets. Assessments are made based on the probability of the obligation being invoked and the risk that the acquisition will be a loss-making contract. Fulfillment of the obligation means Peab pays the purchase price and acquires a share in the tenant-owned housing association. The shares are financial instruments. The obligation is therefore not a variable compensation according to IFRS 15. Recognition of Swedish tenant-owned housing associations is also described in note 3 Important estimates and assessments.

Sales of goods

Revenue from the sales of goods comes primarily from business area Industry and is recognized at the point in time the good is transferred to the customer.

Sales of property projects

Own developed housing projects in Finland and Norway

In this revenue flow revenue is recognized from housing projects in Finland and Norway included in the segment Project Development, i.e. the sections of Housing Development that are not Construction contracts according to the above. Peab does not have an external independent other party at the start of a project in our housing projects in Finland and Norway, i.e. there is no customer, which is why revenue recognition cannot begin. When a customer signs a contract enforceable rights and obligations occur for the Group and the customer. Normally these consist of a performance obligation for a fixed price. Control is not transferred over time in these contracts since the customer does not consume the service at the same it is received. Peab is building on its own land and even if an asset that does not have any alternative use for Peab is created, there is no right to compensation including a margin for work performed at a specific point in time. Since none of these criteria are met control is considered to be transferred at one point in time which normally coincides with the customer taking over the home.

Expenses are recognized as work-in-progress on the balance sheet under Project and development property. On account invoices to customers are recognized as non-interest-bearing liabilities and loans to finance housing projects are recognized as interest-bearing liabilities.

Sales of properties

In this revenue flow revenue is recognized from project and development property, operations property and investment property, primarily in business area Project Development. These sales are either direct sales of the asset or via the sale of shares. The underlying sales value of project and development property sold in the form of a company via shares is recognized as net sales. The net profit effect from the sales of operations property or investment property is recognized as other operating income or other operating cost.

Revenue from the sales of property is recognized at one point in time, normally on the takeover date when control is transferred to the customer. The transaction price is fixed although there can be instances of variable compensation such as rent guarantees in the case of unrented space and operation guarantees.

Transportation services

Revenue from transportation services comes primarily from business area Industry and is recognized at the point in time the transportation/service is carried out.

Rent revenue

Rent revenue from investment property as well as from cranes and machinery is recognized linearly according to IAS 17 Leases. Rent rebates are spread linearly as a reduction in rent over the contract period, except for rebates given because certain factors temporarily curtail a renter’s ability to fully utilize an already rented premise (for example, delayed customization to a renter). These rebates are recognized during the period the curtailment exists.

Other revenue

Other revenue refers to administrative revenue as well as various other revenue. This revenue is recognized both over time and at one point in time based on when control is transferred from Peab to the customer.

Leasing costs

Operational leasing agreements

Costs for operational leasing agreements where the Group is the lessee are recognized linearly in profit/loss for the year over the leasing period. Benefits obtained from signing an agreement are recognized linearly in profit/loss for the year over the term of the leasing agreement. Variable costs are expensed in the periods they occur.

Financial leasing agreements

Assets that are rented under a financial leasing agreement are depreciated over their estimated useful life. Minimum leasing charges are divided between interest costs and amortization of the outstanding debt. Interest costs are distributed over the leasing term so that an amount corresponding to a fixed interest rate for the calculated debt in the respective period is recognized in each accounting period. Variable costs are expensed in the period they occur. See also Leased assets under heading Tangible assets below.

Financial income and expenses

Financial income and expenses consist of interest income on cash in bank, receivables and interest-bearing securities, interest expenses on loans, dividend revenues, changes in fair value of financial investments and changes in fair value of derivatives used within the financial business.

Interest income on receivables and interest expenses on liabilities are calculated in accordance with the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the exact discount rate for estimated future payments and disbursements during the expected life of the financial instrument at the recognized gross value of a financial asset or the accrued acquisition value of a financial liability. Interest income and interest expenses include accrued transaction costs as well as possible discounts or premiums.

Dividend income is recognized when the right to payment is established. The results of sales of financial investments are recognized on the trade date.

Interest costs are charged to profit/loss during the period to which they refer except to the extent that they are included in an asset’s acquisition value. An asset for which interest is included in the acquisition price is an asset which must necessarily require considerable time to prepare for the intended use or sale.


Income tax consists of current tax and deferred tax. Income tax is recognized in profit/loss for the year except when the underlying transaction is recognized in other comprehensive income or equity, in which case the relevant tax is recognized in other comprehensive income respectively in equity.

Current tax is tax that will be paid or received during the current year. This also includes current tax attributable to earlier periods. Current and deferred tax is calculated applying the tax rates and tax rules valid on or in practice valid on the balance sheet day.

Deferred tax is calculated according to the balance sheet method based on temporary differences between the reported and fiscal values of assets and liabilities. Valuation of deferred tax is based on how the underlying value of assets or liabilities is expected to be realized or regulated. Temporary differences for the difference generated by recognition of consolidated goodwill or the temporary difference from the acquisition of subsidiaries that are so-called asset acquisitions are not taken into account.

When shares in subsidiaries are acquired such acquisitions are either business combinations or an asset purchase. An asset purchase refers to, for example, acquiring a company that only owns one or more properties with tenancy agreements but the acquisition does not comprise the processes required to operate a business. In business combinations deferred tax is recognized at the nominally valid tax rate with no discount according to the principles presented above. When an asset is acquired deferred tax is not recognized at the time of acquisition. Instead the asset is recognized at a purchase value corresponding to the asset´s fair value after deductions for a discount received in the transaction for the current value of the fiscal value of future fiscal deductions regarding the difference between recognized and fiscal value that do not materialize. After the acquisition only deferred tax on temporary differences that occur after the acquisition is recognized.

Deferred tax assets in the form of deductible temporary differences and tax loss carry-forwards are recognized only when use of them is probable. The value of deferred tax assets is reduced when use of them is deemed no longer probable.

Financial instruments

Financial instruments recognized on the balance sheet include on the assets side liquid funds, short-term investments, accounts receivable, securities holdings, loan receivables and derivatives. On the liabilities side, they include accounts payable, borrowing and derivatives.

Recognition on and removal from the balance sheet

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized on the balance sheet when Peab becomes involved according to the instrument’s contractual terms. Receivable are recognized when Peab has performed and the other party has a contractual responsibility to pay, even if the invoice has not yet been sent. Accounts receivable are recognized on the balance sheet when the invoice has been sent. Liabilities are recognized when the counterparty has performed the service and there is a contractual payment obligation even if the invoice has not been received. Accounts payable are recognized when the invoice is received.

Financial assets are removed from the balance sheet when the rights in the agreement have been realized, fall due or Peab loses control of them. The same applies to parts of financial assets. Financial liabilities are removed from the balance sheet when contractual obligations have been met or otherwise extinguished. The same applies to parts of financial liability.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and recognized at a net amount on the balance sheet only where there is a legal right to offset the amounts and the intention is to clear the items with a net amount or to at the same time capitalize the asset and settle the liability.

On-demand acquisitions and on-demand sales of financial assets are reported on the transaction date, which is the date Peab undertakes to acquire or sell the asset.

Valuation at initial recognition

Financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value with the addition/reduction of transaction costs except for instruments current recognized at fair value via profit/loss for which transaction costs are instead expensed as they occur. Receivables (without any material financing components) are initially valued at the transaction price determined according to IFRS 15.

Classification and following valuation of financial assets

Financial assets are initially classified as valued at accrued acquisition value, at fair value via other comprehensive income (liability instrument investment), at fair value via other comprehensive income (equity investment) or fair value via profit/loss. How the Group’s various holdings of financial assets are classified is described below.

Holdings of unlisted funds

The Group has participations in unlisted funds. The fund participations do not meet the criteria for an equity instrument and cash flows from the funds do not consist solely of payments of principal and interest. The funds are therefore valued at fair value via profit/loss.

Holdings of shares and participations in unlisted companies

The Group’s holdings of shares and participations in unlisted companies (that are not subsidiaries, associated companies or joint ventures) are valued at fair value via profit/loss.

Derivatives not used for hedge accounting

Derivatives that for Peab have a positive fair value on the balance sheet day are recognized as assets in the report on financial position. Derivatives that are not used for hedge accounting are valued at fair value via profit/loss.

Other financial assets

All other financial assets are recognized at accrued acquisition value. This is because they are held within the framework for a business model aimed at receiving the contractual cash flows at the same time that cash flows from the assets consist solely of payments of principal and interest.

Classification and following valuation of financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as valued at accrued acquisition value or valued at fair value via profit/loss. The financial liabilities valued at fair value via profit/loss consist of contingent considerations for business combinations and derivatives that for Peab have a negative fair value and are not hedged. All other financial liabilities are recognized at accrued acquisition value by applying the effective interest rate method.

Classification and valuation of financial instruments before 1 January 2018

Before the implementation of IFRS 9 on 1 January 2018 the Group’s holdings of financial assets were classified in the following valuation categories in accordance with IAS 39: “Financial assets valued at fair value via profit/loss”, “Financial assets available-for-sale” (valued at fair value via other comprehensive income) and “Loan receivables and accounts receivable” (valued at accrued acquisition value).

Financial liabilities were classified in accordance with IAS 39 as “Financial liabilities valued at fair value via profit/loss” and “Other financial liabilities” (valued at accrued acquisition value).

Hedge accounting

Peab’s holds interest, currency and raw materials derivatives utilized to hedge risks of changes in exchange rates, interest rate changes and changes in the price of raw materials.

Hedging interest risks (cash flow hedging)

Interest rate swaps and hedge accounting (cash flow hedging) are used to hedge against interest risks connected to Group loans. Interest rate swaps are valued at fair value in the balance sheet. The coupon rate part is recognized on a current basis as a correction of the interest expense in net financial items. Unrealized changes in the fair value of interest rate swaps are recognized in other comprehensive income and are part of the hedging provision until the hedged item (i.e. payment of interest on the hedged loan) affects profit/loss and as long as the criteria for hedge accounting is met.

Hedging raw materials price risks (cash flow hedging)

The Group uses derivatives to hedge the price risk of purchasing bitumen. The hedges are identified as cash flow hedging of very probable future purchases of bitumen. The derivative is recognized at fair value on the balance sheet and the unrealized value changes for the period are recognized in the hedging reserve via other comprehensive income.

Hedging currency risks (cash flow hedging)

From time to time the Group uses forward exchange contracts to hedge currency risks when purchasing foreign currency. The forward exchange contracts are valued at fair value on the balance sheet and the period’s unrealized value changes are recognized in the hedging reserve via other comprehensive income.

Hedging net investments

To a certain extent measures have been taken to reduce currency risks connected to investments in operations abroad. This has been done by taking out loans in the same currency as the net investments. At closing these loans are recognized at the translated rate on balance sheet day. The effective part of changes in the period’s exchange rate in relation to hedge instruments is recognized in other comprehensive income and the accumulated changes in a separate component of equity (the translation reserve), in order to meet and partly match the translation differences that affect other comprehensive income concerning net assets in the hedged operations abroad. In cases where the hedge is not effective, the ineffective part is recognized directly in profit/loss as a financial item.

Hedge accounting before 1 January 2018
Fair value hedges

Until the end of 2017 The Group held shares in foreign currency classified as financial assets available-for-sale under IAS 39. Forward exchange contracts were used to currency hedge the holdings. The hedges were identified as fair value hedges. The hedges were accounted for by corresponding the exchange rate effects that occurred when the shares were translated into functional value with changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value. The hedges were terminated in 2017 when the Group’s holdings of shares in foreign currency were divested.

Liquid funds

Liquid funds consist of cash, immediately available balances at banks and equivalent institutes and current liquid investments that mature less than three months from the acquisition date and which are exposed to only insignificant value fluctuation risks.


Group property holdings are recognized as follows:

  • Operations property among fixed assets
  • Investment property among fixed assets
  • Project and development properties as inventory among current assets

Operations property

Properties used in the Group’s own operations consisting of office buildings, production buildings and other operations properties are recognized as buildings and land among tangible assets. They are measured at cost minus accumulated depreciation and possible write-downs.

The accounting principles involved are described below under “Tangible assets”.

Investment property

Investment properties are property classified as fixed assets held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or a combination of both. Even properties under development and redevelopment which are intended to be used as investment property when completed are classified as investment property. Like operations property, investment property is recognized at cost less accumulated depreciation and possible write-downs. Other accounting principles are presented under “Tangible assets”.

Information is presented regarding the fair value of investment property. The valuation is based on an internal valuation model. As a complement to this valuation annual external market valuations are obtained for a number of objects. External valuation of properties is performed every third year.

Project and development property

Project and development property is recognized under current assets and consists of undeveloped land and redeveloped tracts for future development, developed investment properties for project development, improvement and subsequent sale, ongoing work attributable to housing projects in Finland and Norway as well as indirect holdings. The property is expected to be realized during our normal operational cycle. Valuation is made in accordance with IAS 2, Inventories, at the lowest of either acquisition value or net sales value, see below under “Inventories”.

Tangible assets

Owned assets

Tangible assets are recognized in consolidated accounts at acquisition value minus accumulated depreciation and any write-downs. The acquisition value consists of the purchase price and costs directly attributable to putting the asset in place in the condition required for utilization in accordance with the purpose of the acquisition.

The value of a tangible asset is derecognized from the balance sheet upon scrapping or divestment or when no future financial benefits are expected. Any recognized values of exchanged components, or parts of components, that are not depreciated are scrapped and expensed in connection with the exchange.

Gains and losses arising from divestment or disposal of an asset consist of the difference between the sale price and the asset’s recognized value less direct sales costs.

Write-downs are described in separate section below.

Leased assets

Leasing is classified in the consolidated accounts either as financial or operational leasing. Financial leasing applies in circumstances where the financial risks and benefits associated with ownership are substantially transferred to the lessee. Where this is not the case, the leasing contract is operational.

Assets rented under financial leasing agreements are recognized as assets on the consolidated balance sheet. Payment obligations associated with future leasing charges are recognized as long-term and current liabilities. Leased assets are depreciated according to plan while leasing payments are recognized as interest and amortization of liabilities.

Assets rented under operational leasing agreements have not been recognized as assets on the consolidated balance sheet. Leasing charges for operational leasing agreements are charged to income in a straight line over the life of the lease.

Additional costs

Additional costs are only added to the acquisition value if it is likely that the future financial benefits associated with the asset will benefit the Group and the acquisition value can be reliably estimated. Additional costs include the cost of exchanging entire, or parts of, identifiable components as well as the cost of creating new components. Costs that do not meet asset criteria are recognized as costs as they occur.

Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs which are directly attributable to the purchase, construction or production of an asset and which require considerable time to complete for the intended use or sale are included in the acquisition value of the asset. Borrowing costs are included in the purchase price of our own developed real estate.

Depreciation principles

Depreciation is based on the original acquisition value minus the calculated residual value. Depreciation is linear over the assessed useful life of the asset.


Buildings (operations property and investment property) 25-100 years
Land improvements 25-50 years
Asphalt and concrete factories 10-15 years
Vehicles and construction machinery 5-10 years
Other equipment and inventories 3-10 years

The useful life and residual value of assets are assessed annually.

Gravel and rock quarries are written down based on substance depletion, i.e. the amount of gravel and rock removed in relation to the calculated total amount of substance deemed recoverable in the gravel and rock quarry.

Intangible assets


Goodwill is valued at acquisition value minus any accumulated write-downs. Goodwill is divided between cash-generating units and is tested at least once a year for write-down needs. Goodwill stemming from the acquisition of joint ventures and associated companies is included in the recognized value of participations in joint ventures and associated companies.

Balanced development costs

Development costs are primarily derived from developing IT systems and are reported as an asset on the balance sheet, if the application is technically or commercially useful and the Group is believed to have adequate resources for completing development and then applying the intangible asset. The recognized value includes all directly attributable expenses, for example for software, purchased services, personnel and, in cases where projects run for more than twelve months, loan costs. Other development costs are reported in profit/loss for the year as costs as they arise. Balanced development costs are recognized on the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and possible write-downs.

Other intangible assets

Other intangible assets refer to acquired assets recognized at acqusition value less accumulated depreciation and write-downs. These intangible assets consist of:

  • Brands
  • Customer relations
  • Utilization rights, primarily gravel and rock quarries

Depreciation policies

Depreciation is linearly recognized in profit/loss for the year over the estimated useful life of the intangible asset. Goodwill and other intangible assets with an indeterminate useful life is not depreciated but is tested for impairment annually or as soon as there are indications that the asset in question has declined in value. Depreciable intangible assets are depreciated from the date when the asset became available for use.

The estimated useful lives are:

Brands that refer to business area Industry when repurchased by Peab 2008 20 years
Brands, other 5-10 years
Customer relations 3-5 years
Balanced development costs 5-10 years
Utilization rights The term of the contract

The useful life of assets are assessed annually.


Inventories are comprised of raw materials and consumables, products in progress, finished products and goods for resale. Project and development properties are recognized according to the principles for inventories but are presented as a separate item on the balance sheet under current assets.

Inventories are valued at the lowest of acquisition value and net sale value. The acquisition value of stock is calculated using the first-in, first-out method and includes expenses connected to the acquisition of the stock assets and transportation to their current location and condition. For manufactured goods the acquisition value includes a reasonable share of the indirect costs based on a normal capacity.

The net sale value is the estimated sales price in the current business minus estimated costs for completion and bringing about the sale.

Impairment losses

The recognized value of Group assets is checked every balance sheet day to assess whether there is a write-down requirement.

Impairment tests of tangible/intangible assets, investment property and participation in subsidiaries, joint ventures, associated companies etc.

If an impairment is indicated, the recovery value of the asset is estimated according to IAS 36. Moreover, the recovery value of goodwill, other intangible assets of indeterminate useful life and intangible development assets which are not yet ready for use is estimated each year. If it is not possible to establish materially independent cash flows for a certain asset, when testing for impairment the assets are grouped at the lowest level where it is possible to identify materially independent cash flows – a so-called cash-generating unit.

Write-downs are recognized when the recognized value of an asset or a cash generating unit exceeds its recovery value. Write-downs are expensed in profit/loss for the year. Write-downs of assets attributable to a cash-generating unit, or a group of units, are first allocated to goodwill, followed by a proportional write-down of the other assets in the unit (group of units).

The recovery value is the highest of fair value minus sales costs and useful value. When calculating useful value, future cash flows are discounted by a discount factor that takes into consideration the risk-free interest rate and the risks which are associated with the specific asset.

A write-down is reversed if there are both indications that impairments no longer exist and assumptions which the calculation of the recovery value were based on have changed. However, write-downs of goodwill are never reversed. Reversing is only performed to the extent that the recognized value after reversing of the asset does not exceed the recognized value which would have been recognized deducted for depreciation where applicable, if a write-down had not been made.

Impairment tests for financial assets

The Group recognizes loss reserves for anticipated credit losses on financial assets valued at accrued acquisition value. The loss reserve for receivables is valued at an amount that corresponds to the anticipated losses for the remaining time to maturity. For other receivables the loss reserve is valued at an amount that corresponds to 12 months anticipated credit losses, given that the credit loss has not significantly increased from when the receivable was first recognized. If the credit loss has significantly increased from when the receivable was first recognized the loss reserve is valued at an amount that corresponds to the anticipated losses for the remaining period time to maturity.

The loss reserve is calculated as the current value of all deficits in cash flows (i.e. the difference between cash flows according to a contract and the cash flows the Group anticipates receiving). Current receivables are, however, not discounted. Assets are recognized in the balance sheets net after any write-downs. Write-downs are recognized in profit/loss.

The reserve for anticipated credit losses regarding accounts receivables is calculated by, for receivables where no individual impairment has been identified, making a further reserve for anticipated credit losses based on the Group’s history of credit losses in the different business areas. The model is updated regularly to take into account changes in loss statistics over time.

The loss reserve for other receivables is calculated by the Group assessing the probability of default in the counterpart based on available statistics from rating institutes as well as the loss the Group would suffer in the eventuality of a loss given default.

The gross value of a financial asset is written off when the Group no longer has any feasible expectations of recovering part of or the entirety of a financial asset.

Impairment testing of financial assets before 1 January 2018

Before the implementation of IFRS 9 on 1 January 2018 the Group assessed whether there were objective indications that a financial asset or a group of financial assets were impaired. Objective indications consisted in part of occurred observable circumstances which negatively impacted the possibility to recover the acquisition value and in part of significant or long, drawn out reductions in the fair value of an investment in a financial asset classified as a financial asset available-for-sale. Equity instruments classified as financial instruments available-for-sale were written down if the fair value was significantly lower than the acquisition value, or when the decline in value had been a long, drawn out process.

Impairment tests for other assets

The principles for write-downs of inventories and deferred tax recoverables are presented in the respective sections above.


Repurchase of own shares

Holdings of own shares and other equity instruments are recognized as a reduction in equity. Liquid funds from the divestment of such equity instruments are recognized as an increase in equity. Any transaction costs are charged directly to equity.


Dividends are recognized as liabilities after they have been approved by the AGM.

Earnings per share

The calculation of earnings per share is based on consolidated profit/loss for the year attributable to the shareholders of the parent company and on the weighted average number of outstanding shares during the year. There have been no effects from diluting potential shares since 2012.

Employee benefits

Defined contribution pension plans

Pension plans are only classified as defined contribution pension plans when the Group’s obligations are limited to the contributions the Group has undertaken to pay to an insurance Group or to another independent legal entity. In such cases the size of an employee’s pension depends on the size of the contributions the company pays to this legal entity and the yield it generates on the capital. The Group’s obligations concerning contributions to defined contribution plans are expensed in profit/loss for the year as they are earned by the employee performing work for the company during the period.

Defined benefit pension plans

Pension plans that are not defined contribution plans are defined benefit plans, which means the employer is obligated to pay pension fees on a certain benefit level. The Group’s defined benefit plans consist of the Swedish ITP 2 Plan for Salaried Staff which is managed through insurance with Alecta. The ITP 2 pension plan, which is secured through insurance from Alecta, is recognized as a defined benefit plan that encompasses several employers. However, the plan is recognized as a defined contribution plan since Alecta cannot provide the necessary information required for each member company to report its proportional share of the plan obligations, assets and expenses. There are no other defined benefit pension plans.

Pension plans with endowment insurance

There are pension plans where the Group has acquired endowment insurance which is hedged in favor of employees through pledges. The employees in question only have the right to compensation equal to the value of the endowment insurance at redemption. The endowment insurance is valued at its current fair value while the pension liability is revalued to the corresponding value of the endowment insurance. Endowment insurance and pension liability have been reported net. Provisions for special payroll tax are reserved calculated on the fair value of the endowment insurance, except in cases where the contract stipulates that the endowment insurance covers special payroll tax.

Remuneration upon resignation or dismissal

A reserve for remuneration relating to the dismissal of staff is only established if the company is demonstrably subject to, without any realistic opportunity for avoidance, the termination of employment prior to the normal time and the affected groups of employees have been informed about the dismissal plan. Reserves are made for severance compensation which will be paid without requiring any service from the employee.

Short-term remuneration

Short-term remuneration to employees is calculated without a discount and reported as an expense when the related services are received.

The expected costs of participations in profits and bonus payments are recognized as an accrued cost when the Group has a valid legal or informal obligation to make such payments for services rendered from employees and the obligations can be reliably estimated.


Provisions are recognized on the balance sheet when the Group has a legal or informal obligation due to events that have occurred and it is likely that financial resources will be required to meet the obligation, and a reliable estimate of the amount can be made.


Provisions for guarantees are recognized when the underlying products or services are sold. The provisions are based on historical data about the guarantees and an appraisal of the conceivable outcomes relative to the probabilities that the outcomes are associated with.

Restoration costs

Provisions are made for estimated restoration costs for rock and gravel quarries after operations are terminated. The provision increases with the quarried amount and is reversed after restoration is completed. The reserved amount is expected to be utilized successively as quarrying is terminated.

Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is recognized in accounts when there is a possible obligation attributable to events that have occurred, the occurrence of which can only be confirmed by one or more uncertain future events, or when there is an undertaking not recognized as a liability or provision because it is not likely that the use of resources will be required or the amount cannot be calculated with sufficient reliability.

Parent company accounting principles

The parent company has prepared its annual report in accordance with the Swedish Company Accounts Act (1995:1554) and Swedish Financial Reporting Board recommendation RFR 2 Accounting rules for legal entities. RFR 2 requires that the parent company, in the annual report for the legal entity, use all EU adopted IFRSs and interpretations as far as possible within the framework of the Swedish Company Accounts Act, the Job Security Law and with due regard for the relationship between accounting and taxes. The recommendation states which exceptions and additions must be made to the IFRSs.

Changed accounting principles

IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts

The parent company applies IFRS 15 retroactively since 2017. Previously IAS 18 was applied. Net sales in the parent company are primarily attributable to internal Group services. Implementation of IFRS 15 had no effect on parent company revenue accounting.

IFRS 9 Financial instruments

The parent company applies IFRS 9 as of 1 January 2018. Previously IAS 39 was applied. As with the Group the changeover to IFRS 9 has meant a change in the impairment principal for receivables. Even the parent company’s current receivables from Group companies fall within the area of application for the impairment rules in IFRS 9. However, the receivables are overwhelmingly Group contributions that are settled shortly after the balance sheet date. On material grounds no reserve is reported for anticipated credit losses regarding these receivables. Otherwise IFRS 9 has not had any effect on the parent company.

New IFRSs and interpretations that have not yet been applied

The new standard IFRS 16 Leasing, does not effect the parent company since the standard is exempt from application in corporations and leasing in the parent company is insignificant. Other new or amended IFRSs including interpretations that have been adopted by IASB are not expected to have any material effect on parent company accounting.

Differences between the Group’s and parent company’s accounting principles

Classification and presentation

The parent company’s income statement and balance sheet are presented according to the structure in the Swedish Company Accounts Act. The departure from IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements, which is used in structuring the consolidated financial reports is primarily regarding presenting financial income and expenses, fixed assets, equity and provisions reported under a separate heading on the balance sheet.

Subsidiaries and joint arrangements

Participations in subsidiaries and joint arrangements are recognized in the parent company according to the acquisition value method. This means that acquisition costs are included in the reported value of the holding in the subsidiary. In Group accounting acquisition costs are recognized directly in profit/loss as they occur.

Financial guarantees

The parent company’s financial guarantee agreements mainly consist of sureties for the benefit of subsidiaries and joint ventures. The parent company recognizes financial guarantee agreements as provisions on the balance sheet when the company has an obligation for which payment is likely to be required to settle the obligation.


Untaxed reserves including deferred tax liabilities are recognized in the parent company. In the Group accounting however, untaxed reserves are divided into deferred tax liabilities and equity.

Shareholder contributions

Paid shareholder’s contributions are activated in shares and participations in the provider after taking into consideration any impairments.

Group contributions

Group contributions are recognized as appropriations whether or not the Group contribution has been given or received.

Fund for development costs

Amounts that are activated through internally generated development costs among intangible assets are transferred from non-restricted equity to the fund for development costs in restricted equity. The fund contracts as the activated costs are depreciated or written down. Provisions to the fund for development costs were first actualized in 2017 to develop IT systems.